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Herbal Oil Properties for Individual Oils

              
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Essential Oils all have unique properties. They can be antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-infectious, anti-catarrhal, anti-fungal, antiseptic, expectorants, mucolytics, and more. Knowing the properties for an individual oil that you want to use can be very helpful in determining its effectiveness. Please make absolutely sure that you have read all oil safety information, and tested the oils with a skin test before applying. Most oils must be diluted with a carrier oil. Only use oils according to directions.

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What Are Essential Oils?    Household Uses    Oil Properties    Oil Safety    Prices

Click a link below to read further properties, purchase an oil, or find recipes using the essential oil.

Only pure, therapeutic-grade essential oils should be used for effective therapeutic use.

This is by no means a complete list of essential oil properties. We learn more about the essential oils we use every day, and will be adding to this list as our knowledge grows. Please make sure you research any oils you use.

Angelica Root (Angelica archangelica)
COMMENTS: antispasmodic, carminative, depurative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, tonic. Grows up to two meters with fern like leaves and many flowers. Its large root is strongly aromatic. Musky-sweet, woody scented oil.
BLENDS WELL WITH: Aniseed China Star , Bergamot Calabrian , Clary Sage Bulgarian , Cardamom , Eucalyptus Australiana , Lemongrass Cochin , Lemon Cold Pressed , Lavender , Juniperberry Extra , Pine Needle Austrian , Rosemary Moroccan , Sandalwood East Indian , Vetiver

HISTORY: The stalks and roots were traditionaly taken as a tonic to combat infection and improve energy.
The root was often referred to in medieval and renaissance times as Angel's herb or the 'Root of the Holy Spirit' because of its incrediable healing properties.

AROMATHERAPY:
Used to treat a weak stomach or digestive system, lack of appetite , anorexia, flatulence, and chronic gastritis. May be beneficial when treating bronchial asthema, sinus infections, chronic respiratory problems and coughs. Also used for focus, strength and stamina. Highly valued as a fragrance component in soaps, lotions and perfumes, especially oriental fragrances.
SAFETY:
Avoid during pregnancy. The oil is Phototoxic. If applied to the skin, do not go into direct sunlight for 12 hours. Should not be used by diabetics.

Angelica Root Herb (Angelica glauca)
COMMENTS: Musky-sweet, woody scented oil.
AROMATHERAPY: Massage, bath, skin care, inhalation, meditation.

SAFETY:
Avoid during pregnancy. Phototoxic. Should not be used by diabetics.

Angelica Seed (Angelica archangelica)
COMMENTS: Fresher, sweeter, peppery top note
AROMATHERAPY: Massage, bath, skin care, inhalation, meditation, diffuser. Used for focus and concentration Highly valued as a fragrance component in soaps, lotions and perfumes, especially oriental fragrances.

SAFETY:
Avoid during pregnancy

Aniseed China Star (Illicium verum)
COMMENTS: Warm, spicey, extremely sweet, liquorice-like scent
AROMATHERAPY: Massage, bath, skin care, inhalation, meditation, diffuser. Stimulating, uplifting, balancing. Used as a fragrance in soaps, toothpaste, cosmetics and perfumes.

SAFETY:
Avoid during pregnancy, skin irritant.

Apple (Malus domesticus)

Backhousia Anisata

Balsam Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)
COMMENTS: Rich, sweet, balsamic, vanilla-like scent
AROMATHERAPY: Massage, bath, inhalation, meditation, diffuser. Soothing, calming. Used as a fixative and fragrance in soaps, creams, lotions and perfumes.

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)
COMMENTS: Light, clear, fresh, sweet-spicey scent with a balsamic undertone
AROMATHERAPY: Massage, skin care, hair care, inhalation, meditation. Stimulating, used for concentration, strength and stress. Also used in soaps, cosmetics and perfumery.

Basil Australian (Ocimum basilicum)
SAFETY: Avoid during pregnancy, skin irritant.

Basil Sweet Linalool (Ocimum basilicum)
SAFETY: Avoid during pregnancy, skin irritant.

Bay West Indies (Pimenta racemosa)

Bergamot Calabrian (Citrus aurantium ssp. bergamia)

Bergamot Non-Phototoxic (Citrus aurantium ssp. Bergamia)

Cabreuva (Myrocarpus fastigiatus)

Cajeput Ambon (Melaleuca cajeputi)

Camphor Borneo (Dryobalanops aromatica)

Cananga Java

Caraway (Carum carvi)

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Carrot Seed (Daucus carota)

Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia)

Cedarwood Atlas (Cedrus atlantica)

Cedarwood Chinese (Chamaecyparis funebris)

Cedarwood Himalayan (Cedrus deodara)

Cedarwood Texas (Juniperus mexicana)

Cedarwood Virginian (Juniperus virginiana)

Celery Seed (Apium graveolens)

Chamomile German 3% in Jojoba

Chamomile German Blue (Matricaria chamomilla)

Chamomile German Extra Blue (Matricaria recutita)

Chamomile Roman (Anthemis nobilis)

Chamomile Roman 3% in Jojoba (France, Switzerland)

Chamomile Wild Moroccan (Ormenis multicaulis)

Cinnamon Bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)

Cinnamon Leaf Unrectified (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)

Cistus (Cistus ladaniferus)

Citronella Ceylon (Cymbopogon nardus)

Citronella Java (Cymbopogon winterianus)

Clary Sage Bulgarian (Salvia sclarea)

Clary Sage French (Salvia sclarea)

Clove Bud (Eugenia caryophyllus)

Clove Bud Madagascar (Eugenia caryophyllus)

Clove Stem (Eugenia caryophyllus)

Copaiba (Copaifera ssp.)

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum)

Cypress Leaf Provence (Cupressus sempervirens)

Cypress Wild (Cupressus sempervirens)

Dill Seed

Elemi (Canarium luzonicum) Tree: oils obtained from oleoresin (gum)
BOTANICAL FAMILY: Burseraceae (Frankincense and Myrrh)
CONSTITUENTS:
Phellandrene, dipentene, elemol, elemicin, terpineol, carvone, terpinolene.
COMMENTS: Has been used for bronchitis, catarrh, extreme coughing, mature skin, scars, stress, wounds. Highly regarded today for soothing sore muscles, protecting skin, and stimulating nerves.

HISTORY: In Europe it has been used for hundreds of years in salves for skin ans is included in celebrated healing ointments such as baume paralytique. J. J. Wecker, a 17th-century physician used it on the battle wounds of soldiers. Egyptians used it fro embalming, and subsequent cultures used it for skin care.

Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Australiana)

Eucalyptus Blue Gum (Eucalyptus Globulus) Tree: oils obtained from leaves and twigs
BOTANICAL FAMILY: Myrtaceae (myrtle)

CONSTITUENTS: Monoterpenes; Sesquiterpenes; Monoterpene alcohols; Sesquiterpenes (Sesquiterpenols}; Terpine Oxides (cineole 70-75%); Aldehyde; Eucalyptol
COMMENTS: The oil contains eucalyptol, which has been found to be antibacterial, anti-catarrhal, anti-fungal, antiseptic, anti-viral, an expectorant, and mucolytic.  Specifically this oil has been found to have an antimicrobial action, antibacterial against staph, strp, pneumonia, and antifungal against candida. Has been used for arthritis, bronchitis, decongestant, respiratory infections, catarhh, cold sores, colds, coughing, fever, flu, inflammation of the ear, eye, and sinus, cystitis, poor circulation, skin infection, sores, wounds, aches and pains, ulcers, endometriosis, acne, allergies, arthritis, rheumatism, increasing energy, burns, ghonorrhea, vaginitis, sinusitis, malaria, throat infection, and to aid the respiratory system. The trees have been planted throughout parts of North Africa to successfullly block the spread of malaria.
HISTORY: For centuries, Australian aborigines used the leaves as a disinfectant to cover wounds. Some doctors still use solutions of this oil in surgical dressings.

SCIENCE:
Research has found Eucalyptus to be a powerful herb when dealing with viruses of the respiratory system. Shown by laboratory tests to be a powerful antimicrobial agent. It contains eucalyptol, which is a key ingredient in many antiseptic mouth rinses. In a study called, Laboratory Evaluation of a Eucalyptus-based Repellent Against Four Biting Arthopods, Phytotheraphy Research, it was investigated for its effect on insects. Jean Valnet, M. D. maintains that a solution of 2% eucalyptus oil sprayed in the air will kill 70% of the airborne staph microorganisms.
SAFETY: This is a strong oil that should be diluted when used on sensitive skin. Do not take internally.

Eucalyptus Blue Mallee (Eucalyptus polybractea)

Eucalyptus Dives C (Eucalyptus dives var. C)

Eucalyptus Lemon (Eucalyptus citriodora)

Eucalyptus Peppermint (Eucalyptus dives (Type))

Everlasting (Helichrysum italicum)

Fennel Sweet (Foeniculum vulgare)

Fennel Wild Tasmanian (Foeniculum vulgare)

Fir Needle Canadian (Abies balsamea)

Fir Needle Siberian (Abies siberica)

Fir Needle Silver (Abies alba)

Galangal (Alpina galangal)

Galbanum (Ferula galbanifera)

Garlic (Allium sativum)

Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens)

Geranium Bourbon Reunion (Pelargonium graveolens)

Geranium Egyptian (Pelargonium graveolens)

Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Grapefruit Cold Pressed (Citrus paradisi)

Grapefruit Pink (Citrus paradisi)

Guaiacwood (Bulnesia sarmienti)

Ho Leaf

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinale)

Juniper (Juniperus osteosperma and/or J. scopulorum) Tree: oils obtained from branches

COMMENTS: May work as a detoxifier and cleanser that also benefits the skin. Has been used to support proper nerve function.

Juniperberry Extra (Juniperus communis)

Juniper Berry (Juniperus Communis) Bush: oils obtained from fruit (berries) and twigs
BOTANICAL FAMILY: Cupressaceae (Cypress)

CONSTITUENTS: Monoterpenes (pinene 34-46%, sabinene 9-28%, mycrene 6-8%); Sesquiterpenes; Terpene alcohols 5-10%; Aldehydes; Ketones mono and sesquiterpenes (camphor and pinocamphone)
COMMENTS: Historically used as a detoxifier and cleanser, in relieving skin disorders such as acne, dermatitis, eczema; to alleviate arthritis, and joint pain; has been used to promote better adrenal, nerve and kidney circulation/function, and to alleviate bed wetting.

HISTORY: Until recently French hospitals burned sprigs of juniper and rosemary to protect from infection. 

Juniperberry Wild Tyrol (Juniperus communis)

Kanuka

Laurel Leaf

Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia)

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)

Lavender Bulgarian (Lavandula angustifolia)

Lavender French Alpine (Lavandula angustifolia)

Lavender French Population (Lavandula angustifolia) Herb: oils obtained from flowering tops 
CONSTITUENTS:
COMMENTS:

Lavender Spike (Lavandula spica)

Lavender Tasmanian (Lavandula angustifolia)

Lemon Cold Pressed (Citrus limonum)

Lemon Verbena Genuine (Lippia citriodora)

Lemongrass Cochin (Cymbopogon flexuosus)

Lemongrass Guatemalan (Cymbopogon schoenanthus)

Lemongrass Nepal (Cymbopogon flexuosus) Grass: oils obtained from leaves or whole plant
CONSTITUENTS: Monoterpene alcohols; Sesquiterpene alcohols (farnesol 12%); Monoterpene aldehydes 60-85% (citrals 75%, neral 27%, geranial 46%).
COMMENTS: Traditionally, Lemongrass has been used to improve circulation, oxygen flow, for purification (especially the lymphatic system); may be beneficial for the digestive system and has been reported to help regenerate connective tissue. It has been found to be anti-inflammatory, supportive to the digestive system, and a vasodilator. 

Lime Cold Pressed (Citrus aurantifolia)

Litsea Cubeba (Litsea cubeba)

Mandarin Cold Pressed (Citrus reticulata)

Manuka

Marjoram (Origanum majorana) Herb: oils obtained from flowering tops and leaves
CONSTITUENTS: Monoterpenes 40%; Sesquiterpenes; Monoterpenols 50%; Esters (terpenyle acetates, linalyle acetates).
COMMENTS: The healing constituents have been found to be anti-infectious, anti-bacterial and antiseptic. It has been used as a diuretic, to help relieve headaches (migraine and nervous), is calming to the respiratory system and assists in relieving spasms, and Marjoram may help heal to smooth tissues such as the heart and lungs (Ravensara is the most powerful anti-infectious essential oil for the bronchial and lungs). Used four hours prior to a trip, Marjoram has been found to alleviate motion sickness. 

Marjoram Marjorana (Marjorana hortensis)

Marjoram Spanish (Thymus mastischina)

Massoi Bark (Cryptocarya massoy)

Melissa Organic (Melissa officinalis)

Myrrh (Commiphora molmol)

Myrtle Dalmation (Myrtus communis)

Neroli (Citrus aurantium ssp. amara)

Neroli 3% in Jojoba

Niaouli Pacific Island (Melaleuca quinquenervia)

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)

Olibanum (Frankincense) (Boswelia carterii)

Orange Bitter (Citrus aurantium ssp. amara)

Orange Naval (Citrus sinensis)

Orange Sweet (Citrus sinensis)

Orange Valencia (Citrus sinensis)

Oregano (Origanum compactum) Herb: oils obtained from flowering tops and leaves
CONSTITUENTS:  Monoterpenes 25%; Sesquiterpenes; Monoterpenols; Monoterpene phenols 60-70% (carvacrol, thymol); Methyl-ester phenols (menthyl carvacrol); Cetones.
COMMENTS: The healing constituents in Oregano have been recognized to have powerful anti-viral, antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-parasitic properties. Oregano may be beneficial in balancing metabolism and strengthening the vital centers of the body, as well as to reduce arthritic symptoms.

Oregano (Origanum vulgaris) Herb: oils obtained from flowering tops and leaves
CONSTITUENTS: 
COMMENTS: The healing constituents in Oregano have been recognized to have powerful anti-viral, antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-parasitic properties. Oregano may be beneficial in balancing metabolism and strengthening the vital centers of the body, as well as to reduce arthritic symptoms.

Oregano (Origanum syriacum) Herb: oils obtained from flowering tops and leaves
We do not currently have a source for the essential oil by itself. This one is available in a physician's strength supplemental form that also contains olive oil, peppermint oil and capsicum oil.
CONSTITUENTS:  a-Thujene .68%, a-Pinene .53%, Myrcene .63%, a-Terpinene 1.20%., p-Cymene, y-Terpenine 6.26%, Linalool .95%, Thymol .60%, Carvacrol 79.27%, B-Caryophyllene 2.43%, a-Humulene .20%, Caryophyllene Oxide .20%
** The wild oregano is rich in a long list of minerals that includes calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, potassium, copper, boron, and manganese. Vitamins C and A (beta carotene) and niacin.

COMMENTS: The healing constituents in Oregano have been recognized to have powerful anti-viral, antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-parasitic properties. Oregano may be beneficial in balancing metabolism and strengthening the vital centers of the body, as well as to reduce arthritic symptoms.

Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii var. motia)

Parsley Herb (Petroselinium crispum)

Parsley Seed (Petroselinium crispum)

Patchouli (Pogostemom cablin)

Patchouli Aceh (Pogostemom cablin)

Patchouli Clear (Pogostemom cablin)

Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium)

Pepper Black (Piper nigrum)

Peppermint Arvensis (Mentha arvensis)

Peppermint Mitcham (Mentha piperita x) Herb: oils obtained from leaves and pre-flowering tops or whole plant
CONSTITUENTS:  Monoterpenes 2-18%; Sesquiterpenes; Monoterpenols (menthol 38-48%); Monoterpenones (menthone 20-65%); Terpene oxides (cineole 5%); Terpene esters; Coumarines.
COMMENTS: The healing constituents in Peppermint have been found to soothe, cool and dilate the cells of the entire body, making it an important oil for hot weather.  Peppermint may help with candida, dehydration (put in water on cold days to hydrate the body), fevers, decongests prostate (anti-inflammatory), immune system support (sesquiterpenes), nausea and vomiting; aids the function of the liver, ovaries (has a hormone-like action that regulates),  pancreas, sinus, and respiratory system; and reduces inflammation to damaged tissues and bruises. 
SCIENCE: (Study at the University of Cincinnati) Dr. Dembar discovered that for students inhaling peppermint oil, the student's mental accuracy was increased   by 28%.

SAFETY: This oil is high in menthols. It should not be used on the throat or neck area of children under 30 months of age.

Petitgrain Bigarade Italy

Petitgrain Paraguay (Citrus aurantium ssp. aurantium)

Pimento Berry

Pimento Leaf

Pine Needle Austrian (Pinus nigra)

Pinus Pumilio (Pinus mugo var. pumilio)

Pinus Sylvestris (Pinus sylvestris)

Ravensara

Rose Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens)

Rose Otto Bulgarian (Rosa damascena)

Rose Otto Turkish (Rosa damascena)

Rosemary Moroccan (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Rosemary Spanish (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Rosemary Tunisian (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Rosemary Verbenone (Rosemarinus officinalis)

Rosewood Brazilian (Aniba roseodora)

Sage Dalmation (Salvia officinalis)

Sage Spanish (Salvia lavendulaefolia)

Sandalwood East Indian (Santalum album)

Sandalwood West Australian (Santalum spicatum)

Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi)

Tagetes (Tagetes patula)

Tangerine (Citrus reticulata)

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)

Tea Tree Bush Still (Melaleuca alternifolia)

Tea Tree Lemon (Leptospermum petersoni)

Tea Tree Organic (Melaleuca alternifolia)

Tea Tree Premium (Melaleuca alternifolia)

Thuja

Thyme Linalool Organic (Thymus vulgaris) Herb: oils obtained from leaves, stem, and blossom, or just flowering tops
CONSTITUENTS:  Monoterpenols; Terpene esters.
COMMENTS: Has been used for arthritis, colds, cuts, dermatitis, flu, insect bites, laryngitis, lice, muscle aches, oily skin, poor circulation, scabies, sore throat.

Thyme Red (Thymus vulgaris)

Thyme Thymol Organic (Thymus vulgaris)

Thyme Wild (Thymus serpyllum)

Tumeric (Curcuma longa)

Turpentine

Valerian European

Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides)

Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) Oils obtained from roots
CONSTITUENTS:  Benzoic acid, vetiverol, furfurol, a-vetivone, B-vetivone, vetivene, vetivenyl vetivenate.
COMMENTS: This oil has been used for its antiseptic, immune-stimulant and rubefacient (local warming) properties, which make it an excellent oil for arthritis, insomnia, muscle aches, skin problems (including oily skin), rheumatism.

Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) Oils obtained from leaves and twigs
CONSTITUENTS:  Esters (methyl salicylate 99%) (the same active ingredient as birch)
COMMENTS: The healing constituent in Wintergreen has been found to have a cortisone-like action that has been found to be beneficial for bone, muscle and joint discomfort, for decreasing pain from arthritis, rheumatism, sports injuries, and tendonitis.  Has been used for massage associated with these discomforts, also to relieve backache and, gout. Has also been used for gums, cavities, and bad breath.  SAFETY: This is a strong oil that should be diluted.

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

Ylang Ylang 1st (Cananga odorata)

Ylang Ylang 3rd (Cananga odorata)

Ylang Ylang Complete (Cananga odorata)

Ylang Ylang Extra (Cananga odorata)

Ylang Ylang Super Extra (Cananga odorata)

 

What Are Essential Oils?    Household Uses    Oil Properties    Oil Safety    Prices

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. This information is provided for education only. We cannot dispense medical or health advice.  Please consult your health care professional. Read cautions before using any oil.

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